Five Socio-Economic Factors That Affect Human Health
We can identify five socio-economic factors that affect human health by looking at two self-reported measures: income and education. The income measures are the respondents’ total years of education, which are grouped into three categories – “no education,” “some college,” and “more than $30000.” Adding controls and more refined categories yielded similar results. We may be missing something, but it is certainly worth noting.
Social class, or socioeconomic status, is one of the most common determinants of wealth and poverty. The term class was first used in the 19th century to replace the terms order and rank, which were major hierarchical groupings in society. It reflected changes in western European societies following the late eighteenth-century revolutions. As the industrial revolution spread, feudal distinctions of rank deteriorated and new classes emerged, defined by their economic capital and their reliance on wages.
As with wealth, social class has many effects on health, and the inverse relationship between income and physical activity is true of diet. The higher your income, the more likely you are to enjoy the benefits of better health. However, despite these benefits, poverty and social injustice are a result of economic factors alone and cannot explain differences in health and nutrition among people of different socioeconomic statuses. Social class can be a complex subject and scholars disagree on its precise definition.
The study of socioeconomics examines the interrelationship of economic and social factors. This branch of sociology is often referred to as social economics, or SES. It also includes the relationship between socio-economic status and education. Socioeconomic status is a broad category that includes education, occupation, and any other flow of income. In addition, it takes into account subjective perceptions of social status.
Socioeconomic status and health go hand in hand. High incomes are associated with greater health, while lower incomes are associated with lower health. Likewise, low incomes have fewer enabling resources for healthy living, making them prone to illness and premature death. In the Andersen health behavioural model, income is a direct correlate of health and age. But this relationship is bi-directional. Having high incomes often leads to better health, and vice versa.
Occupational complexity is a major component of a variety of job descriptions. The complexity level reflects how much intellectual flexibility, engagement, and skills are required. This measure was developed by Roos and Treiman based on data from the U.S. Census and the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. It includes 46 characteristics that influence job complexity. However, it does not account for sex.
Occupational complexity is one of the socio economic factors that may explain social stratification. These factors are related to higher levels of earnings than traditional social class schemas. The association between complexity and physical health may be more robust than previously thought. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that there is an important place for social class theories in explaining the variation in human abilities. The association between occupational complexity and physical function is not as clear as it is for other factors, including education and socioeconomic status.
The socio-economic status of a person is an expression of their level of income and educational attainment. Socioeconomic status also includes subjective experiences of class and social inequalities and lifestyle choices. In addition to income, other socio-economic factors may include the family’s occupation, educational attainment, and residence. These factors all influence the success of a child in school and have varying correlations with educational success. For instance, education has the strongest correlations with educational achievement, while parental earnings have the lowest correlations with success in class.
In contrast, Sweden has an education system that has been highly decentralized and deregulated since the early 1990s. The system also encourages parental choice and independence in choosing a school. Over the last three decades, multi-level effects of SES have increased in Sweden, with SES disparities between rural and urban students higher in the 1995-2000 cycle than in 1991. The study’s findings point to the importance of balancing efficiency and equity when it comes to the development of education.